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What is a Persian rug made of?

Materials used in Persian rug

Silk in Persian rug

Silk is an very expensive material, and has been used for representative carpets. Its tensile strength has been used in silk warps, but silk also appears in the carpet pile. Silk pile can be used to highlight special elements of the design. High-quality carpets from Kashan, Qum, Nain, and Isfahan have all-silk piles. Silk pile carpets are often exceptionally fine, with a short pile and an elaborate design. Silk is an expensive material, so, all-silk products are often used as wall hangings, pillows or very high quality rugs like MJ Persian rug.

persian rug

silk is used in high-quality persian rug

Wool in Persian rug

In most Persian rugs, the material is of sheep’s wool. Its characteristics and quality are different from each area to the next, depending on the breed of sheep, climatic conditions, pasturage, and the particular customs relating to when and how the wool is shorn and processed.Different areas of a sheep’s fleece yield different qualities of wool, depending on the ratio between the thicker and stiffer sheep hair and the finer fibers of the wool. Usually, sheeps are shorn in spring and fall. The spring shear produces wool of finer quality. The lowest grade of wool used in carpet weaving is “skin” wool, which is removed chemically from dead animal skin.Higher grades of Persian wool are often referred to as kurk, or kork wool, which is gained from the wool growing on the sheep’s neck. Modern production also uses imported wool for persian rugs but it is not that common, for example. fibers from camels and goats. Goat hair is mainly used for fastening the borders, or selvedges, of persian rug. Camel wool is occasionally used in Persian rugs. It is often dyed in black, or used in its natural color. More often, wool said to be camel’s wool turns out to be sheep wool which is dyed.

Cotton in Persian rug

Cotton forms the foundation of warps and wefts of the majority of modern rugs. Nomads who cannot afford to buy cotton on the market use wool for warps and wefts, which are also traditionally made of wool in areas where cotton was not a local product. Cotton can be spun more tightly than wool, and tolerates more tension, which makes cotton a superior material for the foundation of a rug. Especially larger carpets are more likely to lie flat on the floor, whereas wool tends to shrink unevenly, and carpets with a woolen foundation may buckle when wet. Chemically treated (mercerised) cotton has been used in rugs as an alternative for silk since the late nineteenth century.

Spinning in Persian rug

The fibers of wool, cotton, and silk are spun either by hand or mechanically by using spinning wheels or industrial big spinning machines to produce the yarn. The direction in which the yarn is spun is called twist. Yarns are characterized as S-twist or Z-twist according to the direction of spinning.Two or more spun yarns may be twisted together or plied to form a thicker yarn. Generally, handspun single plies are spun with a Z-twist, and plying is done with an S-twist.Nearly all Persian rugs use “Z” (anti-clockwise) spun and “S” (clockwise)-plied wool.


Main material used in MJ rug

In MJ rug company we mainly use Silk.Sometimes Kurk is also used in our Persian rugs which helps them lay evenly and gracefully.


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